1) Transfer pricing legislation contemplates determination of arm's length price ('ALP') of an international transaction, which means for each transaction separately. The term 'transaction' has been defined in Rule 10A(d) to mean 'a number of closely linked transactions.'
2) ALP is required to be determined in respect of each international transaction separately. If, however, there are a number of closely linked transactions, then such closely linked transactions can be considered as a single transaction for the purposes of benchmarking. To put it conversely, the transactions which are not closely linked, should be processed under the transfer pricing regime independently and not on a consolidated basis.
3) In the instant case, the clubbing of royalty payment with other international transactions for processing them in a combined TNMM approach, would defeat the mandate of the transfer pricing legislation.
4) When we consider more than one separate transaction under the combined umbrella of TNMM on an entity level, it is quite possible that a probable addition on account of transfer pricing adjustment arising from one international transaction may be usurped by the income from the other international transaction giving higher income on transacted value. That was why the legislature provided for determining the ALP of each international transaction separately.
5) As the international transaction of royalty payment was separate transaction and not closely linked with the other transactions (i.e., import of raw materials, service spares and export of finished goods, etc.) with which the assessee had merged it, such merger could not be allowed for the purposes of the determination of its ALP on entity level under TNMM. - LG ELECTRONICS INDIA (P.) LTD. V. ACIT (2014) 52 taxmann.com 240 (Delhi - Trib.)